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CHILD Protection & Child Rights » VII. International Mechanisms » Millennium Development Goals » Status of MDGs in India


India's 2009 Progress report only address twelve of the original eighteen targets it feels are applicable to India. India has not adopted the new revised framework of MDG indicators that were released in 2008. Hence following are the status of indicators that have been discussed in the report.

Goal 1 Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, proportion of population below national poverty line India is required to bring down their poverty headcount ratio (PHR) to 18.6% by 2015. In 2004-05 the PHR has come down to 27.5%. At the given rate, India will be 3.5% shy of the MDG. The poverty rate of decline has increased over the years and if that rate continues to increase the goal can be achieved by 2012-13. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Punjab and Rajasthan are either on track or just a bit slow in progress towards achieving the 2015 targets. Bihar, Delhi, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, and Uttar Pradesh are most probably going to fall short of target PHR in 2015. The report recognizes a rural-urban disparity in poverty levels with only Kerala as an exception, where rural poverty has declined at a faster rate than urban poverty.

Target 2: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, proportion of people who suffer from hunger The official poverty lines are expressed as monthly per capita consumption expenditure of Rs. 49 in rural areas and Rs. 57 in urban areas. This corresponds to a basket of goods and services that satisfy the required healthy calorie norms of per capita daily requirement of 2400 kcal in rural areas and 2100 kcal in urban areas. The percentage of population that lives below their required calorie intake has risen to 76% in 2004-05. India will not be able to reach halve mark for children who are underweight. Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Manipur, Mizoram and Tripura do not have the desires rate of decline to achieve the goal.

Goal 2 Target 3: Ensure that by 2015 children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary education India's net enrollment rate indicates that India will reach the goal of universal primary education well before the 2015 deadline. It should be noted that though India will achieve full enrollment, less than 80% of children will actually complete primary school.

Goal 3 Target 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015 The target for eliminating gender disparity in primary enrolment by 2005 has not been achieved in India but should be able to achieve this goal in primary and secondary education by 2015. The goal to remove disparity in tertiary education is unlikely by 2015. The report argues that 50% representation of women in the Labour market will take longer as education effects take time and hence would not be an accurate indicator for this target. India does have reservation of women's seats in national parliament.

Goal 4 Target 5: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) India is unlikely to attain a U5MR level of 42 by about 28 percentage points. Assam, Bihar, MP, Orissa, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh have a higher U5MR than the national average. India is unlikely to reduce the infant mortality rate (IMR) by two-thirds either. The decline in IMR seen over the years has been greater for boy than for girls. Goa, Haryana, J & K, Kerala, Sikkim and Tamil Nadu are like to achieve their targets possibly even earlier than 2015.

Goal 5 Target 6: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) The MMR rate in India has seen a 36% decline in 1998-2006. Still India will fall short of the MMR of 109 per 100,000 live births by 2015 by 26 points. Kerala and West Bengal are the only states that will achieve their targets. Uttar Pradesh/Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh/Chhattisgarh and Karnataka are all lagging behind and will not achieve their targets. The report estimates a 62% delivery- attendance by skilled personnel by 2015.

Goal 6 Target 7: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS prevalence has dropped from 0.45% in 2002 to 0.34% in 2007. Prevalence of HIV among High Risk Population groups (Injecting Drug Users, Men having Sex with Men, Female Sex Workers) is increased. Andra Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu are high prevalence areas. Among pregnant women of 15-24 years, the prevalence has declined from 0.86% in 2004 to 0.49% in 2007.

Target 8: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Data shows that though the number of cases of malaria has declines over the years, the number of deaths due to malaria has increased. The prevalence of TB has steadily declined from 586 per 1,00,000 population in 1990 to 283 per 1,00,000 population in 2007.

Goal 7 Target 9: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources India has a number o policies that concern environmental sustainability: National Forest Policy 1988, the National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement On Environment and Development 1992, and the Policy Statement on Abatement of Pollution 1992, and India's National Environment Policy 2006. India's forests cover has increased by 728 sq. km during 2005-07, hence increasing the share of forest area in total geographical area to 21.02% in 2007. Arunachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Assam, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands (due to 2004 Tsunami) have been the highest in forest decline. India has 4.83% protected geographical land for preservation of biodiversity. 95% of India energy comes from fossil fuels. In 2006 the per capita emission of carbon dioxide was 1.31 metric tonne.

Target 10: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation India is on-track with regard to achieving this MDG. The overall households whose access to safe water, has increased to 84.4% in 2007-08. Growth has been seen in both rural and urban areas, and at this rate the projected estimates will meet the target. Sanitation facilities on the other hand have not improved greatly and India will not meet this part of the MDG. Only 2% of the population saw an improvement in their sanitation facilities in 2006-07. The rural-urban gap in access to sanitation is still abhorrently high.

Target 11: By 2020, to have achieved, a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers India is home to 63% of all slum dwellers in South Asia. The slum population is only growing and the government can not keep up with the growth.

Goal 8 Target 12: In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communication The telephone-density has increased from 0.67 per 100 population in 1991 to 36.98 per hundred population by March 2009. The growth is due to a large number of telephone service providers entering into the market. The number of internet subscribers has increased from 0.21 million in 1999 to 13.54 million in 2009. The Government of India is aiming to get internet services to ever village in India by 2015.

In 2007 Wada Na Todo Abhiyan (WNTA) released a separate report on India Progress. According to WNTA government reports are not fully accurate in showing progress of MDGs as indicators used in India are not those outlined by the MDGs, for example India's national poverty line is not at $1.25 a day. The report also says that though there have been overall improvements along the MDGs, particular sections of the populations have not benefited. For example India shows declining poverty rate but ground realities show continued and even more severe deprivation for specific groups such as Dalits, nomadic tribes, minorities, women and children